Toxidrome (part 1)

Here’s a little nursery rhyme for the anticholinergic toxidrome:

Blind as a bat

Mad as a hatter

Red as a beet

Hot as a hare

Dry as a bone

The bowel and bladder lose their tone

And the heart runs alone.

Stay tuned for next week’s post “Toxidrome (part 2)” where The WM brings out the killer bees.

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Thanks for reading!

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Hungry for more mnemonics? Thought so.

After a two week hiatus, The WM brings you  mnemonics with a food theme to satisfy the  minds of all those hungry learners out there.

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Anti-arrhythmics are tricky to remember and here is one I came across on USMLE world for the class I anti-arrhythmics: “Double Quarter Pounder/ Lettuce, Tomato, Mayo/ More Fries Please!”

“Class Ia: Double Quarter Pounder

Double = Disopyramide
Quarter = Quinidine
Pounder = Procainamide

“Class Ib: Lettuce, Tomato, Mayo

Lettuce = Lidocaine
Tomato = Tocainide
Mayo = Mexiletine

“Class Ic: More Fries, PleaseMoricizine, Flecainide, Propafenone

More = Moricizine
Fries = Flecainide
Please = Propafenone

Leah submitted another great mnemonic this week for the most common tumours metastatic to bone:

“BLT with a Kosher Pickle”
B = Breast
L = Lung
T = Thyroid
Kosher = Kidney
Pickle = Prostate

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Thanks for reading! Good luck to all the poor souls who are already getting ready to go back to school!

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Diseases of the (para)thyroid glands

I recently found a nice letter-to-the-editor entitled “Mnemonics for endocrinologists: hyperparathyroidism” written by Janusz Myśliwiec in a Polish endocrinology journal which provided 3 mnemonics for hyperparathyroidism. The first mnemonic is for remembering the etiology of hypercalcemia: RHINOS.

R = Renal insufficiency (i.e. secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism)
H = Hyperparathyroidism (i.e. primary hyperparthyroidism)
I = Immobilisation and iatrogenic (overdose of calcium/vitamin D, thiazides)
N = Neoplasms (bone mets, bone cancers, paraneoplastic)
O = Other endocrinopathies (thyrotoxicosis, Addison’s disease)
S = Sarcoidosis

The second mnemonic describes the clinical presentation of hyperparathyroidism (which is essentially the presentation of hypercalcemia): “Stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychiatric overtones”

Stones = Kidney stones/nephrocalcinosis/renal failure and biliary stones
Bones = Bone pain (osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteoporosis, osteomalacia)
Abdominal groans = GI symptoms of nausea, vomiting, constipation
Psychiatric overtones = Psychosis, anxiety, lethargy, memory loss, depression, coma

The third mnemonic is a more extensive description of the same clinical picture: “PARAT-HORMONE”

P = Poor bones
A = Abdominal pain
R = Renal stones (nephrocalcinosis and renal failure)
A = Altered mental state
T = Thirst (i.e. polydipsia due to polyuria)

H = Hypertension (50% of patients)
O = Ocular calcifications (and other tissue calcifications)
R = von Recklinghausen’s osteitis fibrosa cystica
M = Muscle weakness
O = Other MEN1 and MEN2a components
N = Non-normal lab values (high calcium/parathormone/alkali phosphatase and low phosphate)
E = Electrocardiogram (shortened QT and bradycardia, increased sensitivity to digitalis and risk of asystole)

Last but not least, thanks to Leah for submitting the following mnemonic for “hyperTHYROIDISM”

T = Tremor
H = Heart rate (increased)
Y = Yawning (fatigue)
R = Restlessness
O = Oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea
I = Irritability
D = Diarrhea
I = Intolerance to heat
S = Sweating
M = Muscle wasting/weight loss

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Thanks for reading! Happy studying!

Follow us to receive weekly posts directly in your inbox! Just enter your email address in the box on the top of the menu on the right and click “Follow”.

Click here to share a mnemonic for a future edition of The Weekly Mnemonic.