Diseases of the (para)thyroid glands

I recently found a nice letter-to-the-editor entitled “Mnemonics for endocrinologists: hyperparathyroidism” written by Janusz Myśliwiec in a Polish endocrinology journal which provided 3 mnemonics for hyperparathyroidism. The first mnemonic is for remembering the etiology of hypercalcemia: RHINOS.

R = Renal insufficiency (i.e. secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism)
H = Hyperparathyroidism (i.e. primary hyperparthyroidism)
I = Immobilisation and iatrogenic (overdose of calcium/vitamin D, thiazides)
N = Neoplasms (bone mets, bone cancers, paraneoplastic)
O = Other endocrinopathies (thyrotoxicosis, Addison’s disease)
S = Sarcoidosis

The second mnemonic describes the clinical presentation of hyperparathyroidism (which is essentially the presentation of hypercalcemia): “Stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychiatric overtones”

Stones = Kidney stones/nephrocalcinosis/renal failure and biliary stones
Bones = Bone pain (osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteoporosis, osteomalacia)
Abdominal groans = GI symptoms of nausea, vomiting, constipation
Psychiatric overtones = Psychosis, anxiety, lethargy, memory loss, depression, coma

The third mnemonic is a more extensive description of the same clinical picture: “PARAT-HORMONE”

P = Poor bones
A = Abdominal pain
R = Renal stones (nephrocalcinosis and renal failure)
A = Altered mental state
T = Thirst (i.e. polydipsia due to polyuria)

H = Hypertension (50% of patients)
O = Ocular calcifications (and other tissue calcifications)
R = von Recklinghausen’s osteitis fibrosa cystica
M = Muscle weakness
O = Other MEN1 and MEN2a components
N = Non-normal lab values (high calcium/parathormone/alkali phosphatase and low phosphate)
E = Electrocardiogram (shortened QT and bradycardia, increased sensitivity to digitalis and risk of asystole)

Last but not least, thanks to Leah for submitting the following mnemonic for “hyperTHYROIDISM”

T = Tremor
H = Heart rate (increased)
Y = Yawning (fatigue)
R = Restlessness
O = Oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea
I = Irritability
D = Diarrhea
I = Intolerance to heat
S = Sweating
M = Muscle wasting/weight loss

————————————————————————————————————

Thanks for reading! Happy studying!

Follow us to receive weekly posts directly in your inbox! Just enter your email address in the box on the top of the menu on the right and click “Follow”.

Click here to share a mnemonic for a future edition of The Weekly Mnemonic.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s