Triads, pentads and classic presentations (part 5)

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)  belong to the group of diseases of thrombotic microangiopathies. In these conditions, there is thrombosis in the capillaries secondary to damage to the endothelium. This leads to  thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, microvascular occlusion, and organ dysfunction (e.g. kidneys, brain).

Hemolytic uremic syndrome can be described by a classic triad. The classic pentad for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura includes the triad of HUS plus two additional signs.

Classic triad of HUS: (1) Microangiopathic anemia, (2) thrombocytopenia, (3) acute renal failure.

Classic pentad of TTP: (1) Microangiopathic anemia, (2) thrombocytopenia, (3) acute renal failure, (4) fever, (5) fluctuating neurologic abnormalities.

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