Triads, pentads and classic presentations (part 5)

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)  belong to the group of diseases of thrombotic microangiopathies. In these conditions, there is thrombosis in the capillaries secondary to damage to the endothelium. This leads to  thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, microvascular occlusion, and organ dysfunction (e.g. kidneys, brain).

Hemolytic uremic syndrome can be described by a classic triad. The classic pentad for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura includes the triad of HUS plus two additional signs.

Classic triad of HUS: (1) Microangiopathic anemia, (2) thrombocytopenia, (3) acute renal failure.

Classic pentad of TTP: (1) Microangiopathic anemia, (2) thrombocytopenia, (3) acute renal failure, (4) fever, (5) fluctuating neurologic abnormalities.

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Triads, pentads and classic presentations (part 3)

Here is part 3 of the “triads, pentads and classic presentations” series. This marks the end of the series…. for now!

  • Triad of right ventricular MI: (1) Hypotension, (2) Clear lungs, (3) Elevated central venous pressure
  • Triad of reactive arthritis: (1) Arthritis, (2) Ocular inflammation, (3) Urethritis
    • The patient “Can’t see, can’t pee, can’t climb a tree.”
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus: (1) Dementia, (2) Gait disturbances, (3) Urinary incontinence

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Triads, pentads and classic presentations (part 2)

Medicine loves its triads, pentads and classic presentations. Here is the second of a series of posts that will allow you to find them in one place for easy studying. (Click here for the part 1)

  • Horner’s syndrome (think “PAM” Horner): (1) ptosis, (2) anhydrosis, (3) miosis.
  • Renal cell carcinoma triad:  (1) hematuria, (2) flank pain, (3) abdominal mass
      • Note this triad only appears 10% of the time
  • Charcot’s triad for ascending cholangitis: (1) fever (2) RUQ pain (3) Jaundice
  • Reynaud’s pentad for ascending cholangitis: Charcot’s triad + hypotension and mental status changes

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